韩国集团旗下投资公司收购Bitstamp;摩根大通将通过以太坊平台Quorum提供交易产品

>>>德国金融监管机构希望看到国际对IC0进行监管的努力

外媒Cointelegraph援引德国商业机构Handelsblatt报道称,德国金融监管机构希望看到到国际上对IC0监管的努力,尽管现在仍不确定这样是否会成为“利基问题”。联邦金融监管局(BaFin)主席Felix Hufeld在接受该出版物采访时表示,德国监管机构对IC0作为金融工具依然持有强硬态度;“IC0的数量和每个IC0数量的增加,会让投资者的权利降低。因为我们建议私人投资者远离这种东西”。当前,全球监管机构对IC0的审查越来越严格,因为2017年许多投资者看到资金在持续的加密货币熊市中蒸发。与此同时,美国等等国家的监管机构也开始对IC0监管趋严;而德国的监管角度传统上是采取全球立场。到目前为止德国政府还在讨论以及研究相关的利基问题,Hufeld表示,IC0是否会成为金融经济的标准部分,仍有待观察。

>>>日本《基金结算法》和《支付服务法》对该国加密货币行业进行了监管

据bitcoin.com报道,日本修订后的《基金结算法》以及于去年4月生效的《支付服务法》的内容对该国的加密行业进行了监管,前者将加密货币定义为一种支付手段,并免除了消费税,后者要求加密货币兑换运营商必须要在金融服务机构FSA进行注册。随着稳定币在全球越来越受欢迎,日本金融服务管理局表示,根据日本《支付服务法》规定,与法币挂钩的稳定币原则上不属于加密货币的范畴。10月9日,日本互联网巨头GMO宣布将开始全面准备发行稳定币,GMO Internet的子公司GMO Coin运营着日本16家注册密码交易所之一。该国还有另外三家加密交易所,FSA允许它们在审查申请时开始运营。

>>>
俄罗斯监管机构呼吁FATF所有成员国控制加密货币交易
据Cointelegraph报道,昨日俄罗斯《消息报》援引政府监管机构的发言表示 ,金融特别工作组(FATF)所有成员国都应该采取其建议来控制加密货币交易及存储。该机构总部设于巴黎1989年由多国政府组织建立,旨在制定打击洗钱和其他非法融资的标准。十月初,FATF宣布更改其数字货币和涉及加密货币相关活动的企业标准。而最新的指导方针指出,数字货币服务提供商应遵守反洗钱和反恐融资法规,并对其进行注册和监督,以确保其遵守尽职调查。目前来说,俄罗斯还没有针对加密货币的硬性监管规定,一项旨在将俄罗斯经济灰色地带正式化的法律参仍自议会审议中。当前对加密货币持有者的额税务义务依然存在疑问;同时对于比特币的零星法律规定,也增加了其不确定的地位。俄罗斯联邦联邦金融监测局副总裁帕Pavel Livadny补充道, 关于加密货币相关监管的俄罗斯法律修改案将在“不久的将来”生效。

>>>
英国加密货币专责小组提出对加密货币监管的修改建议
据Cointelegraph报道,英国加密货币专责小组Cryptoassets Task Force于10月29日发布的报告,提出了对加密货币监管的修改建议,并对数字资产的加以和使用方式提出担忧。据了解,Cryptoassets Task Force成立于三月,由英格兰银行和金融行为监管局(FCA)组成,负责监管和支持加密货币。由于加密货币的定义没有得到广泛认同,而且加密资产提供给持有者的权利也存在很大的差异,因此该特别工作小组开发了相关框架。根据报告,作为交易手段的加密资产由于波动性高、接受程度低以及记账单位使用不适等等特点,使得其不能被识别为货币。不过该机构同时也表示,由于消除了中间商,加密资产部署可允许更高效、更便宜的交易。而当作投资使用时,加密货币可以扩大获得新投资的机会,但目前的市场状态下,它可能会让消费者面临包括非法活动等等在内的不适当风险。另一方面,考虑到市场对消费者保护和市场诚信的担忧,FCA将就禁止向零售消费者销售设计比特币等数字货币的 衍生品进行磋商。

>>>Zcash成功实现Sapling升级,性能有显著提高
10月29日上午,Zcash官方在推特上发文宣布,Zcash Sapling网络在第419200块高度成功启动,Sapling引入了新的屏蔽地址,显著提高了性能。据了解,升级后的网络构建交易的时间减少了90%,内存减少97%以上。目前阶段,用户从旧地址向新地址转移资金的过程中都会被披露金额,以便于审计新的屏蔽地址中的ZEC金额, Zcash官方表示,他们正在开发一种自动化资金转移的工具,以保证将对用户 隐私性的影响降到最低。


>>>摩根大通建立基于以太坊平台Quorum,以提供交易产品
据Btcmanager报道,全球投资银行公司摩根大通正在建立基于以太坊的平台Quorum,并希望借助该平台在未来十年内开辟新的交易机会,以为它将有助于标记包括金条、贵重矿物、房地产和昂贵艺术品等等在内的各种资产。该公司区块链计划负责人Umar Farooq表示,摩根大通的Quorum是以太坊区块链的企业版,可以创建智能合约和分布式应用程序。如果成功建立,摩根大通将成为唯一拥有应用程序到协议的整个区块链平台的金融机构。目前来说 ,他们已经对区块链技术进行大量投资,因为他们相信大宗商品和资产Token化可能会带来许多新的机会。


>>>
日本日立公司与印度国家银行共同开发数字支付平台
据日本日立支付29日发布的新闻稿,该公司与印度国家银行(SBI)合作建立了一个全国性的数字支付平台。在印度政府“数字印度”运动的支持下,日立公司将向印度小企业联合提供包括物联网(IOT)平台“Lumada”在内的解决方案。“Lumada”是去年与日本瑞穗金融集团合作,为供应链管理提供区块链概念验证(PoC)的基 础平台。据了解,日立支付是跨国科技公司日立在印度的全资子公司,该公司在印度拥有5.5万台自动取款机和85万台售点设备。通过新的合作伙伴关系 ,日立支付将向印度国家银行的子公司印度商业银行投资26%,据此前报道, SBI自2017年11月以来一直在开发一种区块链解决方案,用于管理“了解你的客户”(KYC)协议。

>>>富士通利用区块链技术建立银行间结算平台
据Cointelegraph报道,近日日本跨国IT设备和服务公司富士通宣布,将利用区块链技术建立银行间结算平台,并作为与九家该国银行联合项目的一部分 。作为开发的一部分,该平台将使用未命名的“数字货币”记性结算。此外富士通还将利用其在2017财年开发的P2P资金转移平台,与三家主要银行合作,向其他银行汇款并进行资金转账结算。富士通表示,通过这个项目,他们可利用顶尖技术来帮助实现无现金平台。


>>>比利时公司NXMH Holdings收购欧盟最大交易所Bitstamp

总部位于卢森堡的加密货币交易所Bitstamp在致客户的一份声明中宣布,该公司被比利时私人股本公司NXMH Holdings收购,收购合约已于25日签署。NXMH Holdings的母公司NXC还拥有韩国加密交易所Korbit。在路透社的采访过程中,Bitstamp的创始人Kodrič拒绝透露收购价格,据CoinMarketCap的数据,Bitstamp在30天内的成交量略高于16亿美元,是欧盟最大的数字货币交易所 。据了解,收购完成之后,Kodrič将继续担任Bitstamp的CEO并且仍将保持 10%的所有权,有80%的股权交给NXMH。



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乌克兰欲促加密货币合法化;中委双方讨论石油币作为国际交换货币的潜力

Top line

今日头条

 乌克兰经济发展和贸易部启动国家政策,欲促加密货币合法化

 中国台湾正起草IC0监管草案

 加拿大交易所被盗或为蓄意设计的骗局

 中国和委内瑞拉共同分析石油币作为国际交换货币的潜力

 市场震荡上涨,DCN(+15.34%)领涨,市值前100币种中超七成币种上涨

Market trends

市场动态

注1CBT20是指24小时内市值排名前20的数字货币。

注2图2是数字货币市场总市值在24小时内的走势变化,该走势反应了当前大盘的总体表现情况。

注3图中数据来源于coinmarketcap。

>>>市场震荡上涨,DCN(+15.34%)领涨,市值前100币种中超七成币种上涨

昨日数字货币市场震荡上涨,当前市值2101.46亿美元。CBT20币种中平均跌幅0.60%,其中BTC涨幅0.28%,ETH涨幅0.38%,涨幅较大的有ZEC(+2.23%)、DASH(+1.81%),跌幅较大的有USDT(-0.19%)。市值前100币种中超七成币种上涨,涨幅榜中平均涨幅6.88%,涨幅较大的有DCN(+15.34%)、R(+8.60%)、VERI(+7.05%);跌幅榜中平均跌幅2.25%,跌幅较大的有HOT(-3.45%)、DOGE(-3.15%)、MONA(-3.07%)。


>>>乌克兰经济发展和贸易部启动国家政策,欲促加密货币合法化

据Cointelegraph报道,乌克兰国家信息和新闻机构Ukrinform于10月26日发文表示,乌克兰经济发展和贸易部已经启动一项“国家政策”,以此对加密货币相关活动进行分类及合法化判断。该部门称,此项举动的目的是为开展数字货币及领域相关活动创造可理解的条件,同时为数字货币引入国家政策的概念。据悉,该政策将对虚拟资产、加密资产、初始硬币发行、智能合约、加密货币挖矿、代币进行定义;整个过程预计会分两个阶段进行,最终于2021年全部完成。尽管乌克兰迄今为止尚未对加密货币进行监管,但有迹象表明该国将朝着合法化的道路发展。今年九月中旬,乌克兰议会就曾提交法律草案,希望对个人及实体的加密货币持有征收5%的税。而十月初,立法者则提议对部分加密货币税豁免。

>>>中国台湾正起草IC0监管草案

外媒Bitcoin.com援引台北时报报道称,近日台湾金融监督委员会(FSC)主席Wellington Koo证实,该委员会正在起草IC0的标准,从而让数字代币像股票一样易于投资;相关监管法规草案将于2019年6月前发布。据了解,尽管 Koo发布了关于IC0监管的声明,但中国台湾目前仍未计划遏制与加密货币相关的创造力和生产力(只要它们不构成证券);只是在今年四月确认将使用 现有反洗钱法来管理加密货币行业。“我们越监管,这种新的经济模式就消失得越快”,FEC主席说道。

>>>中国和委内瑞拉共同分析石油币作为国际交换货币的潜力
据plenglish报道,本周日委内瑞拉加密货币小组和中国经济金融顾问代表团在金融经济咨询计划(DRC)框架内讨论以及分析了石油币作为国际交换货币的潜力。根据委内瑞拉监管机构负责人Joselit Ramirezzai在推特上的说法, 这次会议是中委双方在第十六次高级委员会期间达成承诺的一部分。同时他强调,会议的目标是推进国家计划的巩固,以及与中国建立重要联盟,从而扩大委内瑞拉加密货币加密货币的具体方案。

>>>门罗币技术升级之后效率明显有所提升
据coinmetrics.io数据显示,门罗币在 Bulletproofs 技术升级之后,其效率有很大的提升,他的交易费用和交 易规模有明显的改善。虽然目前门罗币的交易规模(按字节计算)相比其他加密货币仍然略大,但相比之前已经削减了约85%;其交易费用从之前的5美 元下降至现在的1美元左右。

>>>
Infura节点运营商将有可能增加以太坊网络的中心化风险
据媒体报道, Parity的以太坊开发人员Afri Schoedon表示,Infura网络无法达到每天处理100 亿次的交易请求。Infura是一个基础架构,允许分布式应用程序(DAPP)在 以太坊网络上处理信息,而无需运行完整的节点。一些大型的DAPP和协议包括以太坊钱包MetaMask、分布式交易所协议0x和MyCrypto都依赖Infura向以太坊主网广播交易数据和智能合约。本周,Schoedon坚定地表示,如果dApps继续依赖于Infura的第三方服务提供商或基础设施开发人员,那么从长远来看,以太坊的愿景将会失败。在理想的区块链生态系统中,服务提供者 、dApp和分布式系统各自操作自己的节点,以完全对等和去中心化的方式来验证信息和数据,然而像Infura这样的节点基础设施运营商被流行的dApps委 托为他们处理数据请求,将会增加以太坊网络中心化的风险

>>>软件工程师开发微软Excel插件,允许用户使用闪点网络进行比特币交易
据cryptoglobe报道,比特币独立投资者兼软件工程师Pierre Rochar在推特上表示,他已开发出一个微软Excel插件,让用户能够通过该电子表格程序进行比特币支付。据悉,该程序名为Neutrino,是在闪电网络协议基础上构建的软件解决方案。目前插件的具体上线时间还未公布;而Rochar表示,插件已开发完成,预计本月底公布。


>>>加拿大交易所被盗或为蓄意设计的骗局

据CCN报道,位于加拿大阿尔伯塔省的比特币交易所MapleChange在推特上宣布,由于该平台的一个bug使一些人可以随意从交易所提取所有资金,因此导致该平台资金被盗,无力做出任何偿还。据了解,MapleChange的推特账户拥有不到2000名粉丝,有人猜测,该平台被盗并不存在bug或者黑客,而是他们精心设计的骗局;从 MapleChange.com最近的流量统计数据中可以看到,上周他们的交易量达到峰值,如果他们要进行欺诈,他们就会在周日凌晨动手。另一个代表他们有可能是故意欺诈的信号是,从他们宣布平台故障到运营商完全消失,是一个极短的过程。如果是普通的平台被盗,他们不需要删除其社交媒体的页面, 也不必完全消失。

>>>比特币钱包客户端Electrum或将添加对闪电网络的支持
29日凌晨3点左右 ,闪电网络开发者Alex Bosworth在推特上引述了比特币客户端Electrum开发者Thomas Voegtlein在演讲中的内容,Thomas Voegtlein宣布,Electrum将添 加对闪电网络的支持,“如果您正在维护一个比特币钱包,但是没有支持闪电 网络,那么你的钱包项目将有可能在一到两年的时间内死亡。”



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Ethereum (ETH) Long-term Price Analysis

/latest/2018/10/ethereum-eth-long-term-price-analysis-14/

Ethereum (ETH) Long-term Price Analysis

ethereum-eth-long-term-price-analysis-14

ETHUSD Long-term Trend – Ranging

Distribution territories: $300, $400, $500.

Accumulation territories: $150, $100, $50.

Over the past few days, Ethereum’s price has been maintaining a price range around the $200 territory, without having a lot of volatility to it.

Ethereum, ETHUSD, Cryptocompare chartEthereum Chart by TradingView

The crypto’s traders weren’t able to push its price over said territory over the past week which as result has seen its price trade along the 14-day SMA. The 50-day SMA is currently above the 14-day SMA, and there’s only a small space between then.

The Stochastic Oscillators are moving in a consolidation mode around range 40. This means traders shouldn’t enter positions on ETH at least for a while. The $200 territory seems to be a major point that needs to be broken is the cypto’s price is to head south. If it’s broken, ETH’s price may hit a $100 low.

A strong price reversal over the $200 line could see the cryptocurrency move to the next distribution territory at $300, or even above it.

The views and opinions expressed here do not reflect that of CryptoGlobe.com and do not constitute financial advice. Always do your own research.

Online Gaming Platforms May Be the Next “Killer App” For Blockchain Technology

/latest/2018/10/online-gaming-platforms-may-be-the-next-killer-app-for-blockchain-technology/

Darryn Pollock, a Forbes contributor who writes mainly about finance and economics, recently pointed out the similarities between the evolving blockchain industry and the “global phenomenon” that online gaming has become.

Pollock noted that the gaming sector is similar to the nascent distributed ledger technology (DLT) industry as they’re both “run by people who are technologically inclined, and predominantly younger.”

Gaming Platforms’ Popularity Is Increasing

Pollock, who writes extensively on the regulation and adoption of blockchain and cryptocurrency, mentioned that mainstream consumers do not fully understand many of the concepts related to the world’s gaming economy. This, despite the rising popularity of ESports – which involves organized, multiplayer online video game competitions.

Similarly, many of the important concepts related to blockchain-based networks and cryptographic assets are hard for many less tech savvy people to understand. Given that DLT-powered systems and gaming platforms share many similarities, Pollock argues that online games could be “blockchain’s killer app.”

Gaming Is “Far More Receptive Space” Than Crypto

According to Pollock, the gaming industry has “the right people” and “environment” to handle a “disruptive technological upgrade.” Compared to the crypto space, gamers are “far more receptive … to technological change”, Pollock wrote.

Commenting on the potential application of DLT to the development of more sophisticated online gaming networks, Andrew Colosimo, the founder at Xaya, a UK-based blockchain platform for gamers, said:

I think gaming definitely has the potential for being a catalyst for bringing more of the masses to blockchain. Gamers, particular PC gamers are normally somewhat technical and typically enthusiasts who like new technology, and blockchain does need that bit of expertise at the moment. From our point of view – we know there is going to be a market for blockchain gaming but it needs to be approached carefully.

However, Colosimo acknowledged that “it’s still early days” for blockchain, and that even though large investments are being made to develop DLT-powered games, “there [are] actually very little gamers playing.”

Improving “User Experience”

He revealed that the most popular blockchain-based games only have “10s of daily active users” as it’s more of a “niche” at present. Current challenges such as poor “user experience” and overly complex nature of blockchain-based gaming platforms must be addressed before mass adoption can be achieved, Colosimo noted.

He described the current blockchain-powered games as “slow” and criticized them for not having a well-developed theme. Also, games that are actually fast and engaging may not be using DLT for most parts, or features, of their platforms. They might just be using “blockchain as a buzzword only”, Colosimo said.

As CryptoGlobe recently covered, a blockchain-powered virtual reality (VR) game called Chainbreakers is currently being developed on the Ethereum-based Decentraland platform. The role-playing game is centered around events that took place in Ancient Greece.

Fact Check: Notorious BitConnect Promoter Did Not Call Bitcoin A “Scam”

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A Twitter account some associated with notorious BitConnect promotor Carlos Matos has recently claimed that bitcoin, the flagship cryptocurrency, is a “scam.” The tweet was initially controversial but soon after Mashable revealed it came from a “parody account,” and not from Matos himself.

The tweet reads: “Bitcoin is a scam. Sell everything. It’s NEVER going back up.” What made the tweet seem surprising or ironic is that Matos himself is now infamous for promoting what’s considered to be one of, if not the largest, scams orchestrated in the crypto space.

Although the tweet might not have come from Matos, it served as a reminder that the controversial motivational speaker was “launched into meme infamy” in October 2017. This, soon after a video of Matos became viral in which he was praising BitConnect and trying to hype up an audience.

As most crypto enthusiasts would know, BitConnect was heavily promoted as a crypto lending and exchange service. However, the platform was forced to shut down in January of this year after it received cease and desist letters from regulators in the United States. After it shut down, many unsuspecting investors discovered that it was nothing more than an elaborate scam.

Notably, Matos’ motivational speech was delivered in 2016 to a crowd in Thailand – which is well before cryptocurrency prices skyrocketed in late 2017. The price of BitConnect’s BCC token hit an all-time high of around $437 before crashing to $0.67 according to CryptoCompare data.

An Internet Meme

After becoming a popular internet joke, which saw Matos’ emotional procolomations of “I love BitConnect” turned into many different remixed videos, the New York resident has now been ridiculed by many talk show hosts.

In March of 2018, John Oliver, an English comedian and writer said jokingly during his “Last Week Tonight” show that “the last time he saw someone that irrationally exuberant [as Matos] about a major commitment, he was roughly seven years away from divorcing Katie Holmes” – an acclaimed American actress whose 6-year marriage to Tom Cruise received great attention from media.

While many people now find humor in what Matos and other seemingly passionate BitConnect promoters did to lure unsuspecting investors, the serious nature of their allegedly criminal actions should serve as a warning to those looking to “get rich quick.” Doing proper research and evaluating the legitimacy of a project before making an investment is the best course of action for long-term financial stability.

EOS Long-term Price Analysis

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EOS Long-term Price Analysis

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EOSUSD Long-term Trend – Ranging

Distribution territories: $8, $13, $18.

Accumulation territories: $4, $3, $2.

EOS is one of the cryptoasset that has seen its price move within a range for quite a while. The cryptoasset’s ranging movements have neither been favoring the bulls nor the bears.

EOS, EOSUSD, Cryptocompare chartEOS Chart by TradingView

The $6 and $4 price territories are still seen as the crypto’s range boundaries.  Currently, the market has very slowly aligning itself with the two SMAs. The Stochastic Oscillators have moved northward to seemingly start a set of consolidating movements around range 60.

EOS still appears to need to be pushed southwards, towards the accumulation territory of $4, before it can have a chance of entering a bullish trend. A reversal against the $6 territory could lead to a s bull trap in the short-term.

The views and opinions expressed here do not reflect that of CryptoGlobe.com and do not constitute financial advice. Always do your own research.

American Law Firm Publishes Detailed Summary of Developing Crypto Regulations in Europe, US

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American Law Firm Publishes Detailed Summary of Developing Crypto Regulations in Europe, US

A recent blog post on Lexology noted the rapidly evolving crypto and blockchain ecosystem in “multiple jurisdictions” has resulted in the emergence of various different regulatory frameworks for digital assets.

While most of these guidelines have not been finalized as governments throughout the world struggle to keep up with the fast pace of innovative financial technology, the author of the blog, Morgan Lewis & Blockius LLP, noted that emerging crypto regulations “warrant continual review and monitoring.”

Not A Good Store Of Value Due To “Low Liquidity” 

Morgan Lewis & Blockius, a global law firm that employs over 200 attorneys in 30 different offices in North America, wrote that the international Financial Stability Board (FSB) said earlier this month that crypto assets may not yet be a “material risk” to the traditional financial markets.

As covered, the FSB also noted that the global cryptocurrency market and industry was evolving rapidly and that regulators must closely monitor its developments. The FSB, which makes recommendations about the global financial system, cited “low liquidity” and the “use of leverage” in crypto trading as factors currently preventing digital currencies from becoming a stable store of value.

Authorities in the European Union (EU), UK, and the US have all had a different approach to regulating crypto assets. Additionally, most lawmakers around the world have mainly focused on the criminal or fraudulent activities that have been carried out with cryptocurrencies.

Use Of DLT In Illicit Activities

In early October, the European Parliament approved a non-legislative resolution regarding distributed ledger technology (DLT), and asked the European Commission to work on drafting legal guidelines that would help prevent the use of DLT in carrying out illicit activities.

The European Parliament acknowledged the potential benefits of blockchain technology, specifically in its ability to reduce costs associated with financial transactions while also allowing for greater transparency. However, the parliament also cautioned against the risks associated with trading DLT-based crypto assets.

Despite these concerns, the parliament has called on the European Commission to look into the possibility of adopting cryptocurrencies as a legitimate payment method.

Establishing Blockchain Observatory Group

In February of 2018, the commission had recommended the formation of a Blockchain Observatory group to explore various use cases for DLT, and had suggested that proper “licensing requirements” and “regulatory sandboxes” be developed in order to provide more regulatory oversight over the crypto industry.

Both the European Commission and Parliament agree there needs to be stricter enforcement of anti-money laundering (AML) rules. They also recommend that the EU’s Fifth Money Laundering Directive – which requires preventive measures against fraudulent activities – should be extended to cover cryptocurrencies.

On October 19, the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) released a report in which it asked for more clarity regarding whether crypto assets are “commodities” or “transferable securities.” As an emerging asset class, investors are unsure, or still remain fairly undecided, regarding how exactly to classify cryptos.

Crypto Assets Are Not “Funds Or E-Money”

Earlier in September, the UK Parliament’s Treasury Select Committee had recommended that the UK Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) extend its regulatory oversight to include cryptocurrencies and initial coin offerings (ICOs).

As explained by Morgan Lewis & Blockius, the FCA “has clarified that crypto-assets are in themselves neither specified investments under the Regulated Activities Order nor funds or e-money under the Payments Services Directive and E-money Regulation.”

However, crypto derivatives such as those provided on BitMEX may be classified as proper “financial instruments.”

In the US, the regulatory approach to crypto assets varies from one state to another. The US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), which is a federal level regulator, considers certain cryptos to be securities. These mainly include crypto tokens launched through ICOs.

Consumer Protection, “Increased Governmental Involvement”

Recently, a US district court supported the Commodity Futures Trading Commission’s (CFTC) recommendation that certain crypto assets are commodities, and must therefore be regulated as such.

US state attorneys are also examining crypto assets more carefully, “particularly from the standpoint of consumer protection”, Morgan Lewis & Blockius wrote. Meanwhile, the US Congress has increasingly started to address, and look more closely into how cryptos should be regulated.

According to Morgan Lewis & Blockius, there now appears to be “increased governmental involvement in crypto-asset activities … [as they may be concerned about] … the potential financial stability risks presented by crypto-assets.”