Bitfinex Launches Staking in Response to Customer Demand

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Altcoin Explorer: Meet IOSToken, the Scalable and Secure Blockchain App Platform

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Bitcoin’s Future: Exactly How a Coming Upgrade Could Improve Privacy and Scaling

If the privacy and scaling upgrade Schnorr/Taproot makes it into bitcoin (BTC), it could pave the way for advanced and heretofore impossible projects. That is, as they say, good for bitcoin. 

Schnorr/Taproot has made a great deal of progress recently, moving from a theoretical privacy and scaling idea into actual code. But while the community is very excited about its future, the change is rather confusing. Why? Because it bundles together several different technologies proposed over the years and each one is technically and conceptually unique.

First, there are Merklized Abstract Syntax Trees (MASTs), a smart contract technology developers have been talking about since 2013. Then we add Schnorr signatures, a scaling change first proposed in 2015 by Pieter Wuille, and finally Taproot, a privacy technology built on top of both, proposed in 2018 by Greg Maxwell. 

Privacy and scaling are two things bitcoin still lacks. But as badly as these changes are needed, massive updates like this one are hard and, as such, are few and far between in bitcoin. 

One thorny issue is simply deciding what would go into the upgrade.

“I think the biggest struggle in the process was to come up with the exact set of features to deploy at the same time,” Blockstream researcher Tim Ruffing told CoinDesk.

Here’s a rundown of what changes made the cut, and what didn’t.

How big is this update?

First, we must remember this update is helpful but it’s not a magic pill that instantly morphs bitcoin into a super-scalable and private currency, as experts debated on Twitter recently.

“It’s the right thing to do these improvements but they won’t suddenly make bitcoin a private currency,” Ruffing said. 

There will be some clear improvements. First, more complex types of transactions will be easier to use. In the most typical transaction, one person “signs” a transaction, proving he or she owns the bitcoin and can send it. “Multi-signature” (multi-sig) transactions, on the other hand, require more than one person to sign a transaction. This update will make it easier for multi-sig users.

“It’s likely that more wallets will support multi-sig because it’s cheaper and more private with BIP-taproot,” Blockstream researcher Jonas Nick told CoinDesk.

Multi-signature has many important use cases. First, the multi-sig dependent lightning network could potentially speed up and scale payments for bitcoin, solving massive issues with the digital currency. If lightning proves to be the future of bitcoin, this improvement could have a large impact by making these transactions smaller in size and cheaper to process. 

Further, multi-sig transactions using the new technology will look the same as normal transactions. So even though the bitcoin blockchain is public and anyone can easily look up a particular transaction, with this technology viewers will have no idea that these transactions actually represent lightning channels.

“Lightning channel openings and cooperatives are indistinguishable on the blockchain from normal payments. This also means that opening a lightning channel is just as expensive as a normal payment,” Nick said.

Finally, the change would pave the way for other improvements that weren’t possible before. One such possible next step is the addition of “cross-input aggregation,” another way of scaling bitcoin by as much as 25 to 30 percent

Schnorr for more efficient signatures

Understanding these upgrades requires some understanding of how bitcoin works. Only with the right “private key” (like an access code) can someone “sign” a transaction, thereby sending bitcoin to someone else. This process produces a “signature” that is attached to the transaction. The beauty is that anyone in the world can verify that this signature was produced by the right key

We touched on a more complicated version of this, multi-signature transactions, where more than one person is required to sign a transaction. When such a transaction is signed using ECDSA (bitcoin’s current signature algorithm), it produces a separate signature for each person.

But this might be unnecessary. With the help of Schnorr signatures, it is possible to squash all of this data into a single signature using key aggregation. 

The biggest struggle in the process was to come up with the exact set of features to deploy at the same time.

This makes the special type of bitcoin transaction smaller in size — to the tune of 30 to 75 percent, according to Bitcoin Optech, an organization that helps bitcoin businesses adopt new scaling technologies like Schnorr/Taproot.

These sorts of scaling technologies are important because downloading the full bitcoin blockchain is the most secure and trust-minimizing way of using bitcoin. But that process requires more than 300 gigabytes of storage space. 

Schnorr signatures also allow for something called “batch validation,” making it possible to verify that multiple signatures are valid, saving time.

But just as important is what this upgrade leaves out in terms of Schnorr.

Developers have long proposed using “cross-input signature aggregation” to build Schnorr signatures into bitcoin transactions. Usually, each transaction requires more than one signature, one for each “input,” which is roughly equivalent to one bill out of a handful of them passed over to a cashier.

But what if we could squash all these signatures for every transaction together?

Schnorr signatures theoretically allow for this. But this feature will have to wait for another time, as developers are still working through some security problems with adding this to bitcoin. Though with Schnorr added as a signature option in bitcoin, this kind of functionality will be one step closer. 

“This could be done in a future upgrade,” Ruffing said.

MASTs: better smart contracts

Merkelized Abstract Syntax Trees (MASTs) aren’t in the name of the upcoming bitcoin upgrade, but it’s still a cool technology that developers have been talking about for a long time. 

MASTs improve smart contracts in bitcoin, making it easier for users to set more complicated conditions for a transaction. 

Think back to the multi-signature option we talked about earlier, where two people instead of just one need to sign a transaction. Then imagine a situation in which you want to say a bitcoin can’t be retrieved until after a certain date. A user might want to combine these conditions at once. That’s where MASTs come in.

Right now, when one of these scripts is “redeemed” the full script is squashed into a transaction, taking up a lot of room and showing the whole world what conditions the user used to lock up the bitcoin.

MASTs arrange these conditions in a new way that looks like a tree. Each branch of the tree holds a different condition a user could meet to spend the bitcoin. Then, only a hash of the tip of the tree is included in the bitcoin blockchain instead of all the script conditions.

This is more private because only the script used will hit the blockchain. All in all, MASTs make it much easier and cheaper to lock up bitcoin with these more complicated rulesets.

Taproot gives a privacy boost

Taproot builds on MASTs and Schnorr to create smart contracts with better privacy.

Generally, right now, transactions with complex scripts using MAST would really stand out on the blockchain. Even if MAST itself is more privacy-preserving, the format is a bit different for these transactions so it’s easy to tell if someone is using a script or not. 

Using the magic of signature aggregation Schnorr provides, Taproot would make these transactions look just like normal transactions.

But it doesn’t work for every MAST contract, only for cooperative spends, where one branch of the Merkle tree is a multi-sig transaction, which is successfully used. If any of the other branches are used, then this privacy benefit disappears.

That said, developers expect the cooperative spend use case will be the most common use.

Then there’s Tapscript, which could make it easier to make further improvements to the scripts we’ve talked about in the future. “While the BIP-tapscript changes don’t immediately benefit the average bitcoin user, they are designed to make updates to the script system easier in the future,” Nick said.

Right now, developers are battle testing this bundle of new technologies. So far no major problems have been found, but developers are making it the best they can before they try to add it to bitcoin with a soft fork

“Just recently we’ve suggested a few minor changes to make the Schnorr signing algorithm more resistant to implementation mistakes and physical attacks,” Nick said. As developers grow and expand bitcoin’s technology, it’s changes like these that will truly make the platform usable for developers and financial professionals alike.



万物互联让人期待,但我们也要认识到,隐私信息安全、线上信任构建以及虚拟产权保护等问题仍然有待解决,而区块链恰好可以协助 5G 解决底层通信协议的短板。






区块链与 5G 的融合也需要自身满足一系列技术条件,如分布式共识、高安全性以及高性能,换而言之,区块链需要“达标”才能够进一步探究与 5G 结合的可能性。























“YeeCo公链以5G为契机,从供应链环节入手,为实体产业提供内含YeeCo的完整解决方案; 以大数据聚合使用为目标,利用YeeCo为公共服务机构创新商业模式,同时为包括DeFi / STO / DApp (Game)服务等的泛区块链领域服务。”





  • 比特币的“数字黄金”叙事以及其避风港特性
  • 比特币的减半效应










  • 比特币减半效应是否已经计入到比特币的价格中?
  • 为什么比特币的波动总是如此反复无常?





































Bitcoin Has Gained $600 for 3 Consecutive Mondays — Price Hits $7,400

What can I do to prevent this in the future?

If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.

If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.

Ether Rises to 28-Day High Amid Positive Sentiment for Coming ‘Eth 2.0’ Upgrade

Ether, the native cryptocurrency of the Ethereum network, has recorded its single biggest daily gain in over 20 days amid growing confidence in the platform, experts say.

Ether (ETH) has been performing exceptionally well, thanks in large part to an April 6 close which saw the price finish up by 20 percent – its highest single day gain since March 13. ETH is currently up 17.25 percent over a 24-hour period having lost some ground in the early Asian hours of trading.

Industry experts told CoinDesk the rise can likely be attributed to growing confidence in a planned system-wide upgrade known as Eth 2.0 slated for July 2020.

The 2.0 upgrade, often called Serenity, promises higher transaction throughput and a new security model under proof-of-stake (PoS). Eth 2.0 has been in development since 2015 but had failed to gain traction due to the highly technical expertise required to pursue it, until now.

“From a developer standpoint, Ethereum is the most popular blockchain where most of the smart contract and Dapp activity occurs,” says Damien Brener, founder and CEO of OpenZeppelin, a leading security audit firm for Ethereum.

“People are realizing that Ethereum’s network effects especially around community and composability (ETH smart contracts interacting with each other) are stronger than they thought, which might lead to increased trust in the platform and thus higher prices,” Brener added.

Given the 5-year development cycle for the Ethereum network, not a single challenger cryptocurrency has made a dent in Ether’s leading position according to Jehan Chu, co-founder and managing partner at Hong Kong-based blockchain investment and trading firm Kenetic, who echoed Brener’s sentiments.

“Ethereum continues to be the veteran number 2 coin in crypto, and its recent price surge demonstrates traders’ long-term belief in its market position,” Chu said.

“Price aside, the real story is how Ethereum continues to march towards Eth 2.0 and resolving legitimate criticisms around network speed and scalability. In today’s environment, the name of the game is survival, and no protocol and developer community has survived at this high level better than Ethereum,” Chu added.

Disclosure Read More

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.















根据BCH的代码设置,BCH每210000个区块为一个周期,即每挖出210000个区块奖励就会减少一半。因此,BCH在最开始即0 ~ 209999区块时,每挖一个区块的奖励是50BCH;随后出现了减半,在210000 ~ 419999区块,每挖一个区块的奖励是25BCH;按照惯例,在420000 ~ 629999区块,每挖一个区块的奖励是12.5BCH,在630000 ~839999区块,每挖一个区块的奖励是6.25BCH……





















译者:Odaily星球日报 秦晓峰

近日,以太坊基金会发布报告,公布了《生态系统支持计划》(Ecosystem Support Program,简称“ESP”)最新进展以及 2019 年财务资金使用情况。

2019 年,以太坊基金会向各团队新拨付的资金总计 652 万美元。根据 2019 年的春季报告(点击阅读),基金会将为整个以太坊生态系统上的关键项目投入 3000 万美元,无论 ETH 价格升降与否,这一预算都将不受影响;此外,预算中的 1900 万美元计划用于支持 ETH 2.0 开发,800 万美元用于支持“ETH 1.0”开发,300 万美元用于开发人才引进及激励。


1. ESP最近进展

生态系统支持计划(ESP)是以太坊基金会的分支机构,致力于为整个以太坊生态系统的团队提供支持,包括财务(资金)和非财务支持。ESP也是捐赠计划(Grants program)的扩展,后者主要侧重于资金支持。

在 2019 年的春季报告中,以太坊基金会首次提出该计划并进行了一些畅想。自那以后,基金会一方面继续直接提供资金扶持,另一方面帮助 ESP与其他潜在资金来源建立联系,另外基金会也为行业专家建议、社区曝光、访问云服务和其他基础设施等提供了便利。


  • 标准化 ESP 评审申请的流程;
  • 扩大了该领域专家,可用来协助同行评审申请,或为申请人的项目提供建议;
  • 更加注重为申请人提供 1V1 的反馈;
  • 与已接受的项目更紧密地合作,以建立更清晰的目标、路线图和共同期望。

基金会也在努力提高 ESP 的名气并吸引更多高质量的申请。为此,基金会在沟通方式上也做了一些改变,从改善现有渠道到为 ESP 网站添加一些新页面。


有些变化是非显性的,但基金会希望它们可以让社区知情以及更好地帮助潜在的申请人。现在,你可以在ESP 网站首页关注最新消息,了解疫情之下 ESP 将参加的活动。

网站增加了常见问题解答,改进了调查形式。最重要的是,网站还新增了「特色项目」展示,定期轮动展示 ESP支持的一些项目及其相关情况。

另外,网站还添加了一个「愿望清单」,想借此吸引人们关注一些特定领域,诸如安全性、ETH2.0 以及隐私等。请注意,该清单在 ESP 中优先性并不高,ESP的目光也不仅限这些领域,而是希望在这其中看到更多的申请,希望这份清单对想要参与的人有所启发。



2. 2019年财务使用情况

虽然2019 年全年我们都在努力改进《生态系统支持计划》,但我们也一直继续支持整个以太坊生态系统的项目发展,提供资金只是我们提供支持的一种方式。有很多出色的团队不是以太坊资助的受助人,要么是因为他们已经获得了资金,要么是因为他们的研究方向不适合我们的资助。但是,我们仍然尽我们所能来支持这些重要的贡献者(例如,帮助他们的项目扩大影响)。

当然,财务支持仍然是我们支持整个以太坊生态系统的主要部分。2019 年,共有 70 多个项目获得以太坊基金会财务支持。

下面列出的是 2019 年向各团队新拨付的资金,不包括下面三种情况:常规性资金支持、先前获得的资金奖励以及为其他以太坊基金会团队提供的资金。




ETH2.0 的开发工作正如火如荼地开展。通过众多团队的努力,也使得以太坊更具可扩展性、安全性,其中也引入了权益证明(POS)。以太坊基金会也资助了许多以太坊客户端团队,他们一直在努力实现互操作性、提高可靠性和创建开发者工具。

Eth2客户端:1,695,000 美元

Eth2工具和其他:1,459,000 美元

除了上面列出的资助之外,ETH2.0 的工作还得到了常规性资助和其他渠道的支持。



直到今天,最为重要的工作仍是继续改进以太坊。一些ETH1.x仍在孜孜不倦地进行升级工作,以帮助以太坊在短期内持续改善。重点关注的领域包括无状态以太坊、改进开发人员体验、增加节点客户端多样性、确保运行完整节点的可持续性,以及为 ETH2.0 的推出铺平道路。下面是一些 ETH1.x 资金扶持项目:

未来我们将分享有关其他支持工作的更多信息,包括 Geth、其他ETH1.x和无状态研究。


Layer 2:1,211,000 美元

Layer 2(第2层)解决方案支持各种各样的应用程序,这些应用程序可能太贵、太慢、太复杂,或者不可能直接在以太坊基础层上实现。为使以太坊变得更有用和可扩展性,2019 年整个社区的团队和个人齐心协力。这项工作不仅短期内至关重要,长期来看同样价值非凡。Eth 2.0 也将得益于 Layer 2 所提供的更强的隐私性、可扩展性以及灵活性。

密码学和零知识证明:426,000 美元


开发人员体验:1,322,000 美元




我们一直在寻找通用的工具或者升级,以减少终端用户的摩擦成本,同时又不影响去中心化或以太坊上的一些特色产品。我们需要解决一些常见的痛点,比如 Gas 成本、身份管理、地址可读性和互操作性,从而使 DApp 开发人员在任何地方都能更方便地为用户服务。

社区和教育:422,000 美元


间接资助:484,000 美元


我们为 2019 年取得的所有成就感到自豪,我们将在 2020 年继续砥砺前行。一如既往,非常感谢社区的热情和支持。

关于基金会所有工作的更多细节,我们将在未来几天分享一份 2020 年春季报告,敬请期待。



CoinGecko CEO: ‘Hard for CoinMarketCap to Stay Neutral’

What can I do to prevent this in the future?

If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware.

If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.